Archive for 'Psykologi / psykiatri'

“Danskere skammer sig skam ikke

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Humorforsker og psykolog Martin Führ fra Aalborg Universitet har undersøgt, hvor følsomme danskerne er for andres hån. Det har han gjort ved at måle en særlig social fobi, der kaldes gelotofobi, og som betyder, at man frygter andres latterliggørelse og opfatter den som ydmygende. Ifølge Martin Führs undersøgelse er 1,67 procent af danskerne gelotofobe i lettere grad. Til sammenligning er mellem 11 og 13 procent af englænderne, tyskerne og spanierne gelotofobe, og i Asien og Mellemøsten er det tal helt oppe på hver sjette og hver tredje borger. Så Danmark er én af de nationer i verden, der er mindst gelotofobisk. - Resultaterne tyder på, at i lande, hvor følelsen af skam bruges som et socialt eller samfundsmæssigt regelsæt, findes der flere gelotofobe mennesker end i åbne samfund. Det betyder, at andre, der kommer til vores land med deres værdisæt, vil opleve en nation, der agerer skamløst, siger Martin Führ. (Mette Dahlgaard)”

http://vbn.aau.dk/da/clippings/danskere-skammer-sig-skam-ikke%287bab0b7d-eb24-47eb-9f8c-2bae9bcfac31%29.html

“Gelotofobi er “angst for at blive grinet af”. Gelotofobe er ifølge forskningen mere usikre end andre, de har en følelse af at være latterlige og de er bange for at andre kan se disse ting. Det handler i høj grad om dårlig selvtillid og følelsen af at være til grin - og forsøg på at skjule dette.

Forskere fra Århus Universitet har undersøgt graden af gelatofobi i 72 lande. Undersøgelsen viser, at danskerne er verdens mindst gelatofobe folkefærd. Kun 1,67 procent af danskerne er gelatofobe. Derimod er folk fra Mellemøsten, muslimer, verdens mest gelatofobe folk. 33 procent af dem lider af gelatofobi. Det er 19,7 gange flere end hos danskere. Nordmænd ligger på 2.-pladsen med 2,37 procent, og israelere - som i ekstrem høj grad er udsat for kritik og hån fra deres nabolande og store dele af den vestlige presse, ligger helt oppe på en 4.-plads (5,91 procent).

I undersøgelsen skulle man give 1-5 point til 9 spørgsmål:

1) Når andre ler i min tilstedeværelse, bliver jeg mistænksom.
2) Jeg undgår at stå offentligt frem, fordi jeg frygter, at folk ser min usikkerhed og vil gøre nar ad den.
3) Når fremmede ler i min tilstedeværelse, tror jeg ofte, de ler af mig.
4) Jeg behersker mig meget for ikke at vække negativ opmærksomhed, så jeg ikke virker latterlig.
5) Jeg tror, jeg virker ufrivilligt latterlig på andre.
6) Selvom jeg ofte føler mig ensom, deltager jeg ikke særlig tit i sociale aktiviteter for at beskytte mig selv mod hånlige bemærkninger.
7) Når jeg har gjort et pinligt indtryk et sted, så undgår jeg stedet bagefter.
8) Det tager mig lang tid at komme over, når nogen har grinet af mig.
9) Når jeg danser, føler jeg mig akavet, fordi jeg er overbevist om, at de, der ser mig, synes jeg er latterlig.

Den høje grad af gelotofobi i Mellemøsten kan muligvis forklare en del af årsagen til muslimers aggressive reaktion på satire vendt mod dem selv og det, de repræsenterer (f.eks. Muhammed-tegningerne) - samt udprægede mangel på selvironi. Muslimsk kulturs store fokus på ære og skam bidrager formentligt til den høje grad af gelotofobi blandt muslimer - og dermed også til dårlig selvtillid og følelsen af at være latterlig.

Det skal i denne sammenhæng nævnes, at muslimernes profet Muhammed, selv blev grinet meget af, da han startede sin karriere som profet. Folk troede ikke på ham, når han sagde, at en stemme inde i hans hovede fortalte ham, at han var en guddommelig profet. Af samme grund er der en del vers i både koranen og hadith’erne, hvor Muhammed forbyder at gøre grin med ham.”

http://www.180grader.dk/Politik/forskning-muslimer-bliver-197-gange-lettere-fornaermede-end-danskere

Journal of Moral Education
Vol. 36, No. 3, September 2007, pp. 357–369

“Community perceptions of moral education as a response to crime by young Pakistani males in Bradford”

Marta Bolognani, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan

“Summary

While increasing attention from academics and the media focuses on the lives of Muslim
communities in the west, little attention has so far been given to insiders’ own perceptions of their
social lives. This paper, borne out of broader research on their perceptions of crime, aims to
analyse some internal discourses on moral education. The ethnographic data, collected between
October 2004 and July 2005, is used to try to show the potentials and the pitfalls of formal (in
mosques, madrasahs and schools) and informal (in family and community) means of provision of
moral education. The paper argues that prevention of deviance through moral education seems to
be neglected in favour of punishment, retrieval or rehabilitation. Female deviance, however, seems
to be addressed by prevention strategies that are based on protection and the limitation of certain
interactions, rather than on moral education.

Conclusion

Conclusion

This paper has shown how families, although expected to be the core of moral
education and social control practices, are seen by many Bradford Pakistanis as
failing to provide moral guidance and nurture for mainly three reasons: lack of
parental skills, lack of interaction with the outer world, including schools and
tendency to delegate moral education to others, especially mosques and madrasahs.

Faith was a source from which many of the notions of good and evil were drawn.
Proximity with pious environments was generally considered a ‘protective factor’ in
terms of crime but not even this was deemed as a completely safe path for crime
prevention. While faith was thought of as able to help individuals who had gone onto
a wrong path, it was generally considered a variable independent of human will and
therefore could not directly be used in crime prevention: humans cannot control
faith. However, many believed that an upbringing that emphasised Muslim identity
may lead to some positive results. On their part, mosques were depicted by many as
structures trapped in power and blackmail struggles. The problems of incompetent
imams and the language barrier were also mentioned, together with a growing
interest in international and ‘ummatic’ problems, rather than local concerns. These
issues were reflected in the critical views on madrasahs and religious education.
However, religious practice through English as a medium was generally evaluated as
a safer strategy as it was the teaching of universal Islamic moral values that would
benefit the community through encouraging the inner change of individuals.
Schools, on the other hand, were not considered as conveyors of moral education,
but of skills. Furthermore, inner city schools were considered a place where a
‘contamination’ from bad characters could take place. Overall, research participants
seemed to agree that in Bradford moral education was perpetually delegated and no
agent was ever found to take it over. Prevention of deviance through moral
education, therefore, was perceived to be unsuccessful overall. Social control in
terms of punishment, retrieval or rehabilitation was a more common approach for
boys, though not for girls. Female deviance in fact seemed to be addressed through
prevention strategies that were based on protection and the restriction of certain
interactions, rather than through moral education.”

“En ny analyse fra Center for Aktiv BeskæftigelsesIndsats ( CABI), der hører under Beskæftigelsesministeriet, viser, at indvandrere fra ikkevestlige lande er sygemeldt i længere tid, end danske lønmodtagere generelt er.
Undersøgelsen, der er baseret på udtræk fra Arbejdsmarkedsstyrelsens portal, jobindsats. dk, viser, at 14 procent af alle indvandrere på sygedagpenge i 2009 var sygemeldt i mere end et halvt år. For personer med dansk oprindelse var tallet godt det halve, nemlig 7,5 procent. Og mens indvandrere fra ikkevestlige lande udgør færre end fem procent af arbejdsstyrken, er knap 10 procent af modtagerne af sygedagpenge indvandrere.
Det får overlæge på Indvandrermedicinsk Klinik på Odense Universitetshospital Morten Sodemann til at kritisere kommunernes indsats.
»Vi ser rigtigt mange indvandrere, der bare er parkeret i systemet. De skifter sagsbehandler tre gange om året og bliver kaldt ind til de lovmæssige samtaler, men ellers sker der ikke noget - fordi ingen har noget begreb om, hvordan man skal hjælpe dem videre,« siger han.
Meget tyder på, at overlægens kritik er berettiget.
Næsten 10 procent af sygedagpengeforløbene for indvandrere med ikkevestlig baggrund varede i 2009 mere end et år, mens det samme gjaldt knap fire procent etniske danskere. Især ikkevestlige kvinder over 40 år stikker ud som særligt langtidssyge.
Tallene er dog ikke korrigeret for, at indvandrere ofte er ansat i brancher, som er mere nedslidende, såsom rengøring, industri og transport.
Men ifølge CABI’s temaleder for indvandrere og efterkommere, Mette Fenger, der har udarbejdet analysen, dokumenterer en anden undersøgelse, at selv hvis der korrigeres for uddannelse og job, har indvandrere stadig et længere sygefravær, som ingen kan forklare.
»Der er forskel - og det er iøjnefaldende,« siger hun.”
http://www.information.dk/259456
“Familier hjælper med voldtægt af tvangsgiftede piger
Ritzau | 10. februar 2011
Advokat oplever, at stadig flere unge kvinder udsættes for voldtægt i tvangsægteskaber

Et stigende antal unge, danske kvinder med mellemøstlig baggrund udsættes for vold og voldtægt i deres tvangsægteskaber.

Derfor går den århusianske advokat Simon Eilrich nye veje i et forsøg på at hjælpe kvinderne. Ifølge advokaten sker overgrebene ofte med pigernes familiers viden eller medvirken. Så han går nu efter at få de pårørende dømt.
Advokaten førte sidste år 12 sager for danske piger med mellemøstlig baggrund.
Flere førte til, at fætre eller brødre blev dømt for medvirken til vold og voldtægt.
Hos Landsorganisationen af Kvindecentre, LOKK, har næsten halvdelen af kvinderne på centrene - 46 procent - en anden baggrund end dansk.

LOKKs krisetelefon for unge danskere med mellemøstlig baggrund, der lever i spændingsfeltet mellem æresbegreber og dansk kultur, har på et år oplevet næsten en fordobling i antallet af opkald. Krisetelefonen fik 833 opkald i 2010 mod 440 henvendelser året før.”

http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/artikel/408118:Danmark-Familier-hjaelper-med-voldtaegt-af-tvangsgiftede-piger

83% af de egyptiske kvinder har været udsat for sexchikane. Ud af disse bærer 72% slør og 91% oplevede det i fuld offentlighed (på gaden eller i offentlig transport). 46% af de egyptiske kvinder oplever dagligt sexchikane.

http://politiken.dk/debat/analyse/ECE1187291/egypten-er-demokrati-for-begge-koen/

Her scale examined how U.S.-born and immigrant Muslims viewed their adherence to Islamic values, and whether they were adopting values of the dominant American culture. The measure was completed by 255 people nationwide. Bagasra found that:

  • 75 percent said most of their friends are Muslim.
  • 68 percent said they’re not willing to marry a non-Muslim.
  • 77 percent expressed a strong desire to raise their children as Muslims.
  • 55 percent said it was either slightly true or not at all true that participating in practices or displaying symbols of American patriotism — such as reciting the Pledge of Allegiance, hanging the American flag or standing up for the national anthem — was important to them.

The scale did find that American Muslims were strongly interested in politics, with almost 81 percent of participants agreeing that voting in local and federal elections is important. The measure also found a willingness to participate in social rituals: Sixty percent said they’re comfortable shaking hands with a member of the opposite sex, and 68 percent said they often eat meals with non-Muslim friends.

Other speakers at the session reported on different aspects of Muslim acculturation in America. They included:

  • Farah Khan, a student at the New York University School of Medicine, who has conducted research with African-American Muslim young adults. She has found that although many feel a need to fit in with peers, they have trouble integrating the religious requirements of their Muslim faith with their ethnic identities as African Americans.
  • Mona M. Amer, PhD, of the American University in Cairo, discussed her finding that Christian Arab Americans show greater cultural adaptation, stronger social support networks and better measures of mental health as compared with Muslim Arab Americans.
  • Paul E. Priester, PhD, of North Park University in Chicago, has found that a 12-minute psychoeducational film shown to self-identified Christian American college students changed their belief that Islam endorses terrorism. However, he found the film did not change the students’ desire to maintain social distance from Muslims.

“Across the Arab world today an average of 45 percent of married couples are related, according to Dr. Nadia Sakati, a pediatrician and senior consultant for the genetics research center at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh.

In some parts of Saudi Arabia, particularly in the south, where Mrs. Hefthi was raised, the rate of marriage among blood relatives ranges from 55 to 70 percent, among the highest rates in the world, according to the Saudi government.

Widespread inbreeding in Saudi Arabia has produced several genetic disorders, Saudi public health officials said, including the blood diseases of thalassemia, a potentially fatal hemoglobin deficiency, and sickle cell anemia. Spinal muscular atrophy and diabetes are also common, especially in the regions with the longest traditions of marriage between relatives. Dr. Sakati said she had also found links between inbreeding and deafness and muteness.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/05/01/world/saudi-arabia-awakes-to-the-perils-of-inbreeding.html

“PISA etnisk 2005

Kompetencer hos danske og etniske elever i 9. klasser i Danmark 2005

… Halvdelen af alle indvandrerbørn gennemfører ikke en uddannelse ud over grundskoleniveau; 60 % af de indvandrerbørn, der påbegynder en erhvervsuddannelse, færdiggør den aldrig.”

http://www.rff.dk/publikationer/indvandring+og+integration/publication?id=1252

“Pihl har undersøkt rundt 130 sakkyndige vurderinger ved to kontorer i Pedagogisk-psykologisk tjeneste (PP-tjenesten) i Oslo fra 2001-05. Elevene var fra 6 til 16 år.

- 21 prosent av elevene ble diagnostisert med intelligensnivå som lettere psykisk utviklingshemmet. 79 prosent av elevene hadde, ifølge PPT, lavere IQ enn gjennomsnittet. Det viser med stor tydelighet at minoritetselever blir tilskrevet lav IQ i uforholdsmessig stort omfang, sier Joron Pihl.”

“THE HAGUE, 02/09/10 - Only 40 percent of Dutch people with a Turkish background actually feel Dutch, the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) reported yesterday.

The CBS surveyed the degree to which the four important immigrant groups identify themselves with the Netherlands. To this end, people were surveyed who were themselves born abroad, or who have at least one parent not born in the Netherlands.

Surinamese (79 percent) are most likely to feel Dutch. Possibly this is because they generally already spoke Dutch before their arrival - Surinam was in the past a Dutch colony.

Command of the Dutch language is the most important criteria for deducing to what extent someone feels Dutch, according to the CBS. Having work also encourages identification with the Netherlands. How much people earn plays no demonstrable role.

Among Antilleans (and Arubans), some 60 percent feel Dutch, followed by Moroccans with 50 percent. Turks have the lowest score at 40 percent. Among Turkish women, the figure is even slightly lower (38 percent).

Turks, Moroccans and Antilleans are more likely to feel Dutch if they have work than if they are not working, but among Surinamese, this makes no difference. Only 24 percent of Turks without a job feel Dutch.”

http://www.nisnews.nl/public/020910_1.htm

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